Rulers of Lithuania 1918 to present

Rulers of Lithuania 1918 to present

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Lithuanian_rulers

This article includes:

Rulers of LT 1918 to present

-Republic of Lithuania (1918–1940)
-Lithuanian Soviet Socialist -Republic (1940–1941)-Soviet
-1941 to 1944 Nazi occupation and control
-Republic (1944–1990)-Soviet
-Republic of Lithuania (1990–present)

Republic of Lithuania (1918–1940)

Main article: Lithuania
Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but this proclamation was not generally recognized until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993.
The institution of President (Lithuanian: Prezidentas) was created on 4 April 1919.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
No 1 President Antanas Smetona

1st President of Lithuania

President Antanas Smetona

Term: 4 April 1919 – 19 June 1920
Preceded by    none   Succeeded by   Aleksandras Stulginskis

4th President of Lithuania
Term: December 19, 1926 – June 15, 1940
Preceded by   Aleksandras Stulginskis   Succeeded by   Antanas Merkys

Born   August 10, 1874    Užulėnis, Lithuania   (part of the Russian Empire)
Died   January 9, 1944 (aged 69)    Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Nationality Lithuanian
Political party   Lithuanian Nationalist Union
Spouse: Sofija Chodakauskaitė-Smetonienė
Remarks: Elected by the Council of Lithuania. Antanas Smetona  pronunciation (help·info) (August 10, 1874 – January 9, 1944) was one of the most important Lithuanian political figures between World War I and World War II. He served as the first President of Lithuania from April 4, 1919 to June 19, 1920. He again served as the last President of the country from December 19, 1926 to June 15, 1940, before its occupation by the Soviet Union. He was also one of the famous ideologists of nationalism in Lithuania.

No 2 President Aleksandras Stulginskis

President Aleksandras Stulginskis

2nd President of Lithuania
Term: 19 June 1920 – 7 June 1926
Preceded by   Antanas Smetona   Succeeded by   Kazys Grinius

Acting President of Lithuania
Term: December 19, 1926 – December 19, 1926
Preceded by   Jonas Staugaitis   Succeeded by   Antanas Smetona

Born   February 26, 1885   Šilalė district municipality,Lithuania, Russian Empire
Died   September 22, 1969(aged 84)   Kaunas, Lithuania
Nationality    Lithuanian
Political party  Lithuanian Christian Democrats
Remarks: Acting President (as Constituent Assembly). Re-elected by the Seimas on 21 December 1922 and in June 1923.
During World War I he moved to Vilnius. He was one of the founders of the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party and the head of its Central Committee in 1917. He signed the memorandum for the president Woodrow Wilson, addressing the question of the recognition of the Lithuanian statehood by the U.S.. Contrary to the Antanas Smetona’s views, Stulginskis was oriented towards the Entente. He was one of co-organizers of the Vilnius Conference. After, he was elected to the Council of Lithuania.
He withdrew from politics in 1927, and worked on his farm. In 1941 Stulginskis and his wife were arrested by the Soviet NKVD and deported to a gulag in the Krasnoyarsk region, while his wife was deported to the Komi area. After World War II in 1952 he was officially sentenced by the Soviet authorities to 25 years in prison for his anti-socialist and clerical policies in pre-war Lithuania.

No 3 President Kazys Grinius

President Kazys Grinius

Third President of Lithuania
Term: 7 June – 18 December 1926
Preceded by   Aleksandras Stulginskis   Succeeded by   Jonas Staugaitis

Born   17 December 1866   Selema, Kazlų Rūda municipality, Lithuania
Died   4 June 1950 (aged 83)   Chicago, Illinois, USA
physician
Spouse(s)   1st: Joana Pavalkytė-Griniuvienė, 2nd: Kristina Arsaitė-Grinienė
Children   Liūtas (Leo) Grinius (died 1989)
Political party   Lithuanian Popular Peasants’ Union
Remarks: Elected by parliament, but overthrown by a military coup d’état.
When Lithuania regained its independence in 1918, Grinius became a member of the National Assembly as a member of the Peasant Populist Party. He served as Prime Minister from 1920 until 1922, and signed a treaty with the Soviet Union. He was elected President by the Third Seimas, but served for only six months, as he was deposed in a coup led by Antanas Smetona, under the pretext that there was an imminent communist plot to take over Lithuania. (Smetona took the Presidency after two others held the office for less than a day each.)
When Nazi Germany invaded Lithuania in 1941, Grinius refused to collaborate with the Germans because of his opposition to the occupation of Lithuania by any foreign power. He fled to the West, when the Soviet army reoccupied Lithuania in 1944, and emigrated to the United States in 1947.

No 3a President Jonas Staugaitis

President Jonas Staugaitis

Term: 18–19 December 1926
Remarks: Formally, for one day, as the head of Seimas (renounced the office after the coup d’état).
Jonas Staugaitis; born: May 20, 1868 in Omentiškiai, Vilkaviškis district municipality – died: January 18, 1952 in Kaunas) was the acting President of Lithuania during the December 1926 coup d’état. He was formally elected for few hours as the Speaker of Seimas; as the highest-ranked official, he became de jure the President of Lithuania. He renounced the office after the coup d’état was complete.
He was a doctor, having studied at the Warsaw University. In 1919, he was elected to Lithuanian parliament (Seimas) as a member of the Peasant Populist Party. On June 2, 1926, he was elected the head of Seimas.
He is buried in Petrašiūnai cemetery in Kaunas.

No 3b President Aleksandras Stulginskis
Term: 19 December 1926
Remarks: Formally, as the new head of Seimas, only for several hours. See him as #2 President above.

No 3c President Antanas Smetona
Term: 19 December 1926 – 15 June 1940
Remarks: Second term, elected president after a military coup d’état; after the Sovietultimatum of 1940 he fled to Germany and then to the USA.                           See him as #1 President above.

No 3d President Antanas Merkys
Term: 15–17 June 1940
Remarks: The Prime Minister, de facto acting president after Smetona’s defection. Not recognised by Lithuanian diplomats abroad; he assumed the role of president illegally, as Smetona neither resigned nor died.
Antanas Merkys; born on February 1, 1887 in Bajorai, near Skapiškis, Vilna Governorate of the Russian Empire; died on March 5, 1955 in Vladimir Oblast, Soviet Union) was the last Prime Minister of independent Lithuania, serving from November 1939 to June 1940. When the Soviet Union presented an ultimatum to Lithuania, President Antanas Smetona fled the country leaving Merkys as the acting president. Merkys ostensibly cooperated with the Soviets and handed over the power to Justas Paleckis, who formed the so-called People’s Government of Lithuania. When Merkys attempted to flee the country, he was captured and deported to the interior of Russia, where he died in 1955.

No 3e President Justas Paleckis
Term 17 June – August, 1940
Remarks: Chosen unconstitutionally by leaders of the Lithuanian communists under pressure from the Soviet Union, not recognized internationally or by the Lithuanian diplomatic service.
Justas Paleckis (born 22 January [O.S. 10 January] 1899 in Telšiai; died 26 January 1980) was aLithuanian journalist and politician. He was acting president of Lithuania after the Soviet invasion while Lithuania was still ostensibly independent, in office from June 17 – August 3, 1940.
In 1926-1927, he was a director of the Lithuanian official news agency, ELTA. He later voiced opposition to the ruling elite in Lithuania; in this way, he became a suitable candidate for theLithuanian communists (manipulated by Soviet envoy Vladimir Dekanozov) to become the puppet leader of Lithuania in the Soviets’ planned takeover of the country in 1940.
After President Antanas Smetona fled to the US when the Soviet Union occupied the country, Prime Minister Antanas Merkys became acting president. A day after Smetona left the country, Merkys announced he had formally ousted Smetona and taken over the presidency himself. He then appointed Paleckis prime minister. Merkys himself resigned, making Paleckis acting president as well. These moves are now considered illegal and unconstitutional, since Smetona never resigned. As such, Paleckis is not recognized as a legitimate president by Lithuanian diplomats.

No 4 President Jonas Žemaitis

President Jonas Žemaitis
President Jonas Žemaitis

President of Lithuania
(Posthumously recognized in 2009, then officially Chairman of the Lithuanian Movement for Freedom)
Term 16 February 1949 – 26 November 1954
Preceded by   Antanas Merkys   (Last head of state before Soviet annexation)
Succeeded by   Vytautas Landsbergis   (First head of state of Independent Lithuania in 1991)

Born:   March 15, 1909   Palanga, then Russian Empire, now Lithuania
Died: November 26, 1954   Moscow, Soviet Union
Remarks: Officially named as the fourth President of Lithuania in March 2009.
Jonas Žemaitis (also known under his codename Vytautas; March 15, 1909 in Palanga – November 26, 1954 in Moscow) was one of the leaders of armed resistance against the Soviet occupation in Lithuania and acknowledged as the Head of State of contemporary occupied Lithuania.
Žemaitis was born in Jonas Žemaitis and Petronėlė Daukšaitė’s family. Despite the fact that his father was non-religious, Žemaitis was christened in Palanga’s church. From 1910 to 1917 he lived with his parents in Poland, Lomža. In 1917, Žemaitis returned to Lithuania and settled down in Šiluva’s region, Kiaulininkų village. In 1921, he finished Raseiniai Gymnasium First Class. In 1926, started studying in Kaunas War School.
In 1944 he joined the Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force, organized by Povilas Plechavičius. After the force was disbanded by the Nazis, Žemaitis went into hiding. When the Red Army returned to Lithuania, Žemaitis joined the Lithuanian Freedom Army and the Lithuanian partisans, steadily rising to a position of leadership. In February 1949 he established the Union of Lithuanian Freedom Fighters and became its chairman; he worked to continue partisan resistance to Soviet occupation and legitimize the actions of the partisans. In December 1951 he was stricken with a cerebral hemorrhage and became paralyzed. In May 1953 his place of hiding was discovered by Soviet agents and he was arrested. After being transported to Moscow, he was interrogated by Lavrentiy Beria and was executed in the Butyrka prison in 1954.

Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1940–1941 and 1944–1990)

Main article: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Soviet Union occupied Lithuania and established Lithuanian SSR in July 1940. As Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union, Lithuania was occupied by the Germans. Few days before the German occupation, Lithuania was ruled by pro-German rebel government of Juozas Ambrazevičius. Under Germans, the General District of Lithuania was governed by the administration of general Petras Kubiliūnas. As Nazi Germany retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied the country and reestablished Lithuanian SSR in 1944.
Title: First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos komunistų partijos Centro komiteto pirmasis sekretorius; Russian: Первый секретарь Центрального Комитета Коммунистической партии Литвы).
No 1 First Secretary Antanas Sniečkus

First Secretary Antanas Sniečkus
First Secretary Antanas Sniečkus

Term 21 July 1940 – 24 June 1941   13 July 1944 – 22 January 1974
Antanas Sniečkus (7 January 1903 [O.S. 25 December 1902] – January 22, 1974) was First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party from August 1940 to January 22, 1974.
Biography
Antanas Sniečkus was born in 1903, in the village of Būbleliai, near Šakiai. During the First World War, his family fled to Russia where he observed the Russian revolution of 1917. In 1919, his family returned to Lithuania; by 1920 he was already a member of the Bolshevik Party. In the same year, he was arrested for anti-governmental activities. He was released from prison on bail, but fled to Moscow, and became an agent of the Comintern. In Moscow, he earned the trust of Zigmas Angarietis, and Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas, and became a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Lithuania. In 1926, the Comintern sent Sniečkus to Lithuania to replace the recently-executed Karolis Požėla as head of the banned and underground Communist Party of Lithuania.
From 1926 to 1930, he engaged in subversive activities in Lithuania, and was again arrested and imprisoned for them in the Kaunas Prison in 1930. In 1933, Sniečkus was released in exchange for Lithuanian political prisoners held in the USSR. In 1936, he returned to Lithuania. In 1939, he was arrested again, and sentenced to eight years in prison. After the Soviets occupied Lithuania, Sniečkus was released from prison on June 18, 1940, and became the head of the Department of National Security. Foreign Affairs Commissar Vladimir Dekanozov, arrived in Lithuania a few days earlier on June 15, 1940, to organize the incorporation of Lithuania into the Soviet Union. As party secretary, Sniečkus issued Vladimir Dekanozov’s orders in the party’s name. Sniečkus helped create an atmosphere of terror prior to the elections of the newly established, by the Soviet authorities, People’s Seimas, on July 14, 1940. Only the Communist Party of Lithuania and its collaborators could nominate candidates. People were threatened in various ways to participate in the elections, but the results were falsified anyway. On July 21, 1940, the People’s Parliament, declared that the Lithuanian “people” wanted to join the Soviet Union, and on August 3, 1940, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR incorporated Lithuania into the Soviet Union. The process of annexation was formally over and the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic was created. From August 15, 1940, until his death, Sniečkus was the First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party.
Sniečkus was the initiator of the first mass deportations of Lithuanians between the 14th and 19 June 1941. He even had his own brother, with his family, deported to Siberia, where his brother died.
On November 26, 1942, the Lithuanian Partisan Movement (Lietuvos partizaninio judėjimo štabas) was created in Moscow, under the command of Sniečkus, who had retreated with the Red Army to Moscow, in 1941. Existence of Command of Lithuanian Partisan Movement had to show Lithuanian nature of Soviet partisans actions in Lithuania, but in reality diversant groups sent from Moscow did not report to Command of Lithuanian Partisan Movement and instead reported directly to Central Command of Partisan Movement. It is estimated that in Lithuania 5—10 thousand people engaged in Soviet underground activities during the war.
In 1944, due to advance of the Red Army, his mother fled Lithuania to the West, and disowned her son. Two brothers and three sisters of Antanas Sniečkus also fled to the West. Sniečkus returned from Russia in 1944, with the Communist officials who had retreated during the German invasion of 22 June 1941.
Sniečkus again organized mass deportations of Lithuanians following the war. In 1948, Sniečkus started the collectivisation of agriculture. By terror, killings and deportations, most peasants were collectivised by 1952. Agricultural production fell dramatically to the level of Soviet agriculture in the other Soviet Republics. When Soviet party chief Nikita Khrushchev issued an amnesty program, many political prisoners and deported people were released from prisons and labour camps, but Sniečkus did not allow them to return to Lithuania.
During the later decades of Sniečkus’s rule national orientation was noticeable in his activities. First confrontation with Moscow happened in 1949-1950, when he had to defend his old communist friends from persecution, with whom he was together working in underground. Lithuania was the only republic of USSR where not only mass persecution of old communists did not happen and not even one communist of pre-Soviet times was incorrectly accused and arrested. At around this time his policies started to gain national character. This policy had a form of sabotaging some orders of Moscow, demanding some privileges for Lithuania, and others.
His wife Mira Bordonaitė was also a convicted communist and spent many years in prison.[6] Sniečkus had two children, Vladas and Marytė.

No 2 First Secretary Petras Griškevičius
Term 18 February 1974 – 14 November 1987
Petras Griškevičius (July 19, 1924 in Kriaunos, Rokiškis district – November 14, 1987 in Vilnius) was a high-level communist party official in the Lithuanian SSR. He was the First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party (de facto leader of Lithuania) from 1974 to his death.
At the beginning of World War II, Griškevičius retreated into the Russian SFSR. During the war, he was a member of the 16th Rifle Division(1942–1943) and a Soviet partisan (1943–1944) in Rokiškis district. After joining the communist party in 1945, he slowly rose through the ranks.[2] He worked in press censorship (1950–1955) before moving to the Vilnius committee of the Lithuanian Communist Party. There he worked at the secretariat (1955–1964) and central committee (1964–1971), becoming the first secretary in 1971. After the death ofAntanas Sniečkus in 1974, Griškevičius succeeded him as the First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party. He was also a delegate of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR (since 1965), delegate of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (since 1974), and member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (since 1976). Griškevičius was described as a Brezhnevite, conservative and “mediocre apparatchik”, who opposed perestroika and especially glasnost. He supported suppression of Lithuanian history and cultural heritage, replacing them with Soviet propaganda.

No 3 First Secretary Ringaudas Bronislovas Songaila
Term 1 December 1987 – 19 October 1988
Ringaudas Bronislovas Songaila (born March 20, 1929 in Klaipėda) was an official of the Lithuanian SSR nomenclatura.
Songaila was member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Lithuania (1962–1981), Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1981–1985), Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR (1985–1987), and First Secretary of the Communist Party of Lithuania (1987–1988). When Songaila targeted rallies of radical pro-independence Lithuanian Liberty League, he was forced to resign. He was replaced by Algirdas Brazauskas, who supported Sąjūdis movement and Lithuania’s declaration of independence in March 1990.
Remarks First leader of the party to be deposed of his power (Sniečkus and Griškevičius held office until their death)
No 4 First Secretary Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas   See as President
Term 19 October 1988 – 11 March 1990

Remarks Lost power as independence was declared

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet acted as a collective head of state from 25 August 1940 to 11 March 1990.

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Justas Paleckis
Remarks In Russian SFSR exile 1941–1944
Justas Paleckis
President of Lithuania (not recognized)
In office   June 17, 1940 – August 3, 1940
Preceded by   Antanas Merkys   Succeeded by   Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas

Born   10 January 1899   Telšiai, Lithuania
Died   26 January 1980 (aged 81)
Nationality   Lithuanian
Justas Paleckis (born 22 January [O.S. 10 January] 1899 in Telšiai; died 26 January 1980) was aLithuanian journalist and politician. He was acting president of Lithuania after the Soviet invasion while Lithuania was still ostensibly independent, in office from June 17 – August 3, 1940.
In 1926-1927, he was a director of the Lithuanian official news agency, ELTA. He later voiced opposition to the ruling elite in Lithuania; in this way, he became a suitable candidate for theLithuanian communists (manipulated by Soviet envoy Vladimir Dekanozov) to become the puppet leader of Lithuania in the Soviets’ planned takeover of the country in 1940.
After President Antanas Smetona fled to the US when the Soviet Union occupied the country, Prime Minister Antanas Merkys became acting president. A day after Smetona left the country, Merkys announced he had formally ousted Smetona and taken over the presidency himself. He then appointed Paleckis prime minister. Merkys himself resigned, making Paleckis acting president as well. These moves are now considered illegal and unconstitutional, since Smetona never resigned. As such, Paleckis is not recognized as a legitimate president by Lithuanian diplomats.
By this time, Lithuania had been occupied by Soviet troops. His appointment as Prime Minister was made under the control and dictate of the Soviet embassy in Kaunas. Aided by specialists sent in from Moscow, Soviet deputy foreign minister Vladimir Dekanozov worked through the Lithuanian Communist Party, while the cabinet of ministers, headed by Paleckis, served an administrative function. Dekanozov and Paleckis brought a number of non-Communists into the first “People’s government”, but in historical retrospect it is clear that they constituted window dressing for the Soviet takeover. In order to save face, the Soviet Union attempted to cover its annexation of the Baltic States with a cloak of legality. Therefore Moscow ordered the puppet government of Paleckis to carry out elections for a People’s Seimason July 14–15 with a single list of candidates containing only Communists and their allies. The People’s Parliament met on July 21, with only one order of business—a request for admission to the Soviet Union, which was unanimously carried. A few days later, Moscow “accepted” the request.
Paleckis remained as head of state, a post which was named Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR, until 1967. As such, he personally signed orders authorizing the mass deportation of several figures from independent Lithuania. With his agreement, Merkys and Minister of Foreign Affairs Juozas Urbšys were deported to Russian SFSR. The intelligentsia and Lithuania’s elite were considered as enemies and were among the first sentenced to deportation or death. He worked closely with NKVD residents in Lithuania (M. Gedvilas, M. Mickis).
During 1940–1953, some 132,000 Lithuanians were deported to remote areas of the USSR: Siberia, the Arctic Circle zone and Central Asia. They were not allowed to leave remote villages. More than 70 percent of the deportees were women and children. There were 50,000 women and 39,000 children deported to remote areas of the USSR. Some 30,000 of the deportees died there mostly because of slave work and starvation. Some 50,000 of the deportees were not able to return to Lithuania. During the same period, another 200,000 people were thrown into prisons. Some 150,000 of them were sent to the Gulag (the USSR‘s concentration camps), situated mostly in Siberia.
He served as Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities (1966–1970).
His son Justas Vincas Paleckis is a politician and Member of the European Parliament and an active pro-European.

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Motiejus Šumauskas
Term 14 April 1967 – 24 December 1975
Motiejus or Matas Šumauskas (2 October 1905 in Kaunas – 28 May 1982 in Vilnius) was a Lithuanian communist activist and politician. He served as the Chairman of the Council of Ministers (equivalent to Prime Minister) from 1956 to 1963 and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR (de jure head of state) from 1967 to 1975.
Šumauskas received only primary education and earned a living working at a printing press. He joined the Lithuanian Communist Party in 1924. For his communist activities he was jailed in 1929, served a six-year sentence from 1931 to 1937, and was imprisoned again in 1939. Šumauskas was freed after the Soviet ultimatum in June 1940 and was elected to the People’s Seimas. He became chairman of the trade unions and People’s Commissar of Local Industry of the Lithuanian SSR. During World War II he retreated to the Russian SFSR, joined the 16th Rifle Division and was a Soviet partisan leader in the environs of Švenčionys and Lake Narach.
After the war, Šumauskas became Deputy Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars (1944–1950, 1953–1954). He replacedMečislovas Gedvilas as the Chairman of the Council of Ministers in 1956. Gedvilas was demoted to Minister of Education due to tensions between him and Antanas Sniečkus, the First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party.[3] From 1967 to 1975 Šumauskas served as the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR and the Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. He was also a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Lithuanian Communist Party.

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Antanas Barkauskas
Term 24 December 1975 – 18 November 1985

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Ringaudas Songaila

Term 18 November 1985 – 7 December 1987

See No 3 First Secretary above
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Vitautas Astrauskas
Term 7 December 1987 – 15 January 1990

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Algirdas Brazauskas

Term 15 January 1990 – 11 March 1990
See President #2 below
The leader of the Supreme Council was the official head of state from the declaration of independence on 11 March 1990 until the new Constitution came into effect in 1992 establishing the office of President and the institution of Seimas. The state and its leadership were not recognized internationally until September 1991.
Title from 1990 to 1992: Chairman of the Supreme Council (Parliament) (Lithuanian: Aukščiausiosios Tarybos pirmininkas). Title from 1992 onwards: President (Lithuanian: Prezidentas).

Republic of Lithuania (1990–present) Independence

Nº 1 President Vytautas Landsbergis

President Vytautas Landsbergis

Term: 11 March 1990 – 25 November 1992
Elected
Took office 11 March 1990   Left office 25 November 1992
Chairman of the Supreme Council.

Chairman of the Supreme Council of Lithuania(de jure Head of State)
In office 11 March 1990 – 25 November 1992
Preceded by    Post created    Succeeded by   Algirdas Brazauskas (as the President of Lithuania)   Česlovas Juršėnas (as the Acting Speaker of the Seimas)

Speaker of the Seimas
In office 25 November 1996 – 19 October 2000
Preceded by   Česlovas Juršėnas   Succeeded by   Artūras Paulauskas

Chairman of the Homeland Union
In office 1 May 1993 – 24 May 2003
Preceded by   Post created   Succeeded by   Andrius Kubilius

Member of the European Parliament for Lithuania
Incumbent
Assumed office 2004

Born   18 October 1932 (age 80)   Kaunas, Lithuania
Political party   Homeland Union
Spouse   Gražina Ručytė-Landsbergienė
Religion   Lutheran
Remarks:
Professor Vytautas Landsbergis (born 18 October 1932) is a Lithuanian conservative politician and Member of the European Parliament. He was the first head of state of Lithuania after its independence declaration from the Soviet Union, and served as the Head of the Lithuanian Parliament Seimas. Professor Landsbergis is an intellectual who has been active in Lithuania’s political arena for almost two decades, and is a notable politician who helped contribute to the demise of the Soviet Union. He has written twenty books on a variety of topics, including a biography of Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, as well as works on politics and music. He is a founding signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, and a member of the international advisory council of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation.

Nº 2 President Algirdas Brazauskas(acting)

President Algirdas Brazauskas (acting)

Term: 25 Nov 1992 – 25 Feb 1998
First Secretary of Central Committee of the Communist Party of Lithuania
In office 1988–1989
Preceded by   Ringaudas Bronislovas Songaila   Succeeded by   Mykolas Burokevičius

President of Lithuania
In office   25 February 1993 – 25 February 1998
Preceded by   Vytautas Landsbergis   Succeeded by   Valdas Adamkus

Prime Minister of Lithuania
In office   3 July 2001 – 31 May 2006
Preceded by   Eugenijus Gentvilas   Succeeded by   Zigmantas Balčytis

Born   22 September 1932 Rokiškis, Lithuania
Died   26 June 2010 (aged 77)   Vilnius, Lithuania
Political partyies   Communist Party of Lithuania(1965–1990)   Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania (1990–2001)   Social Democratic Party of Lithuania (2001–2010)
Spouse(s)    Julia            Kristina Brazauskienė
Children   2 daughters (from first marriage)
Remarks: First post-Soviet President
Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas was the first President of a newly independent post-Soviet Lithuania from 1993 to 1998 and Prime Minister from 2001 to 2006.
He also served as head of the Communist Party of Lithuania that broke with Moscow, an act which arguably helped bring about the demise of the Soviet Union.
Brazauskas finished Kaisiadoriai High School in 1952 and graduated from Kaunas Polytechnic Institute in 1956 with a degree in civil engineering. In 1974, Brazauskas received Ph.D. in Economics.
He divorced his first wife, Julia, with whom he had two daughters; he later married Kristina Butrimienė.

Nº 3 & 7 President Valdas Adamkus

President Valdas Adamkus

Term: 26 Feb 1998- 26 Feb 2003   & 12 Jul 2004-12 Jul 2009
President of Lithuania
In office   12 July 2004 – 12 July 2009
Prime Minister   Algirdas Brazauskas   Zigmantas Balčytis (Acting)   Gediminas Kirkilas   Andrius Kubilius
Preceded by   Rolandas Paksas   Succeeded by   Dalia Grybauskaitė

Born   3 November 1926 (age 86)   Kaunas, Lithuania
Political party   Independent
Spouse   Alma Adamkienė charitable activities in Lithuania (m. 1951)
Profession   Civil engineer, civil servant
Resident: Clarendon Hills, IL, US
Religion   Roman Catholic
Remarks:
Valdas Adamkus was President of Lithuania from 1998 to 2003 and again from 2004 to 2009.
In Lithuania, the President’s tenure lasts for five years; Adamkus following his defeat by Rolandas Paksas in the next presidential election. Paksas was later impeached and removed from office by a parliamentary vote on April 6, 2004. Soon afterwards, when a new election was announced, Adamkus again ran for president and was re-elected. His approval ratings were high and he was regarded as a moral authority in the state. He chose not to run for re-election in 2009.
The President remains involved in international development, and is a member of the Club de Madrid, an organization that works to strengthen democratic leadership and governance worldwide and the International Honorary Council of the European Academy of Diplomacy.
Adamkus’ father was one of the first heads of the Lithuanian Air Force School in the Republic of Lithuania. As a young man, Adamkus joined the underground against the first Soviet occupation of 1940. During World War II, his family fled Lithuania in order to avoid the second Soviet occupation in 1944. He attended the University of Munich in Germany before emigrating to the United States in 1949. Fluent in five languages — Lithuanian, Polish, English, Russian, and German — he served as a senior non-commissioned officer with the United States 5th Army Reserve’s military intelligence unit in the 1950s. During his youth, Adamkus was interested in track and field. He also set national record at 100 metres running.
After arriving in Chicago, Illinois as a displaced person, he worked in an automobile factory and later as a draftsman. Adamkus graduated as a civil engineer from Illinois Institute of Technology in 1961. While a student, Adamkus, together with other Lithuanian Americans, collected about 40,000 signatures petitioning the United States Government to intervene in the ongoing deportations of Lithuanians to Siberia by the Soviets. The petition was presented to then-Vice President Richard Nixon. Adamkus also raised concerns about other Soviet activities in occupied Lithuania to United Nations Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in 1958, and to President John F. Kennedy in 1962.

Nº 4 President Rolandas Paksas

President Rolandas Paksas

Term: 26 February 2003 -6 April 2004
President of Lithuania
In office   26 February 2003 – 6 April 2004

Prime Minister   Algirdas Brazauskas
Preceded by   Valdas Adamkus   Succeeded by   Artūras Paulauskas (Acting)

Prime Minister of Lithuania
In office   26 October 2000 – 20 June 2001
President   Valdas Adamkus
Preceded by   Andrius Kubilius   Succeeded by   Eugenijus Gentvilas (Acting)
In office   18 May 1999 – 27 October 1999

Nº 5 President   Valdas Adamkus
Preceded by   Irena Degutienė (Acting)   Succeeded by   Irena Degutienė (Acting)

Born   10 June 1956 (age 56)   Telšiai, Soviet Union   (now Lithuania)
Political parties   Communist Party (Before 1989)   Democratic Labour Party(1989–1995)   Homeland Union (1995–2000)
Liberal Union (2000–2002)   Order and Justice (2002–present)
Spouse   Laima Paksienė
Alma mater   Vilnius Gediminas Technical University   Leningrad Civil Aviation Academy
Remarks: Impeached and removed from office.
Rolandas Paksas is a Lithuanian politician who was President of Lithuania from 2003 to 2004. He was previously Prime Minister of Lithuania in 1999 and again from 2000 to 2001, and he also served as Mayor of Vilnius from 1997 to 1999 and again from 2000 to 2001. He has led Order and Justice since 2004 and has been a Member of the European Parliament since 2009.
A national aerobatics champion in the 1980s. In 1997, he was elected to Vilnius City Council for the centre-right Homeland Union and became mayor. In May 1999, Paksas was appointed Prime Minister, but resigned five months later after a disagreement over privatisation. Paksas joined the Liberal Union of Lithuania (LLS) in 2000. The LLS won the 2000 election, and Paksas became PM again, but he left within seven months after another dispute over economic reforms.
In 2002, Paksas founded the Liberal Democratic Party, and ran for the presidency, winning the run-off against incumbent Valdas Adamkus in January 2003. It emerged that he had granted citizenship to a major campaign donor, leading to his impeachment and removal from office in April 2004. He was the first European head of state to have been impeached. Barred from the Seimas, Paksas was elected to the European Parliament in 2009, while leading his party, now called Order and Justice (TT). His lifetime ban from the Seimas was ruled illegal by the European Court of Human Rights in 2011.

Nº 6 President Artūras Paulauskas (acting)

President Artūras Paulauskas (acting)
President Artūras Paulauskas (acting)

Acting President of Lithuania

Term: 6 Apr 2004 -12 Jul 2004

In office   April 6, 2004 – July 12, 2004
Preceded by   Rolandas Paksas   Succeeded by   Valdas Adamkus

Speaker of the Seimas
In office   October 19, 2000 – April 6, 2004
Preceded by   Vytautas Landsbergis   Succeeded by Česlovas Juršėnas (acting)

In office   July 12, 2004 – April 11, 2006
Preceded by   Česlovas Juršėnas (acting)   Succeeded by   Vydas Gedvilas (acting)   Minister of the Environment

In office   January 31, 2008 – November 28, 2008
Preceded by   Arūnas Kundrotas   Succeeded by   Gediminas Kazlauskas

Born   23 August 1953 (age 59)   Vilnius, Lithuania (then USSR)
Political parties   New Union (Social Liberals) (since 1998)   Independent (1989–1998)   Communist Party of Lithuania (until 1989)
Education Vilnius University with a degree in law in 1976
Spouse   Jolanta Paulauskienė
Remarks: As leader of Seimas, temporarily performed the duties of the President until the next election.
Artūras Paulauskas  is a Lithuanian politician, he was the Speaker of Seimas, the parliament of Lithuania, from 2000 to 2006, and he served as Acting President of Lithuania from 6 April 2004 to 12 July 2004.
Early career
Artūras Paulauskas worked as an investigator and a prosecutor. He was Deputy Prosecutor General of Lithuania from 1987 to 1990 and Prosecutor General of Lithuania from 1990 to 1995. He was again Deputy Prosecutor General from 1995 to 1997 and was engaged in private legal practice from 1997 to 2000.
Political career
Artūras Paulauskas established The New Union (Social Liberals) party, becoming its Chairman on 25 April 1998. This party gained 19.6% of vote in the 2000 parliamentary election. Following this election, he became the Speaker of Seimas on 19 October 2000.
Following the impeachment of President Rolandas Paksas on 6 April 2004, Paulauskas served as acting President of Lithuania until early elections were held and a new President, Valdas Adamkus, was sworn on 12 July 2004.
On 11 April 2006, Paulauskas was removed from office as Speaker by 94 votes (only 11 parliamentarians voted against it). His party New Union (Social Liberals) did not participate in the election. Paulauskas was succeeded by Viktoras Muntianas.
Paulauskas was named as the candidate for the post of Minister of Environment by Prime Minister Gediminas Kirkilas on 30 January 2008. As Minister, he made a May 2008 statement at a meeting of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development supporting the use of renewable energy resources in Lithuania.

Nº 7 President Valdas Adamkus See President # 3 above

In office   26 February 1998 – 26 February 2003
Prime Minister   Gediminas Vagnorius   Irena Degutienė (Acting)   Rolandas Paksas   Irena Degutienė (Acting)
Andrius Kubilius   Rolandas Paksas   Eugenijus Gentvilas (Acting)   Algirdas Brazauskas
Preceded by   Algirdas Brazauskas   Succeeded by   Rolandas Paksas

Nº 8 President Dalia Grybauskaitė

President Dalia Grybauskaitė
President Dalia Grybauskaitė

Term: 12 July 2009 – Incumbent
Elected 2009
Took office 12 July 2009
Left office Incumbent

President of Lithuania
Incumbent
Assumed office   12 July 2009
Prime Ministers   Andrius Kubilius    Algirdas Butkevičius
Preceded by   Valdas Adamkus   European Commissioner for Financial Programming and the Budget

In office   22 November 2004 – 1 July 2009
President   José Manuel Barroso
Preceded by   Michaele Schreyer   Markos Kyprianou (Budget)
Succeeded by   Algirdas Šemeta   European Commissioner for Education and Culture

In office   1 May 2004 – 11 November 2004
Served with Viviane Reding
President   Romano Prodi
Preceded by   Viviane Reding   Succeeded by   Ján Figeľ (Education, Training, Culture and Multilingualism)

Born   1 March 1956 (age 56)   Vilnius, Soviet Union   (now Lithuania)
Alma mater   Zhdanov University   Georgetown University
Remarks:
Dalia Grybauskaitė (pronounced [ˈdaːlʲæ ɡʲrʲiːbɒʊsˈkaɪtʲeː], born 1 March 1956) is the President of Lithuania, inaugurated on 12 July 2009. She was Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Finance, also European Commissioner for Financial Programming and the Budget from 2004 to 2009. Often referred to as the “Iron Lady” or the “Steel Magnolia”, Grybauskaitė is Lithuania’s first female head of state.
Grybauskaitė is unmarried and has no children (the suffix -aitė on her surname is for unmarried Lithuanian women). Other than her native Lithuanian, she is fluent in English, Russian and Polish. Grybauskaitė possesses a black belt in karate.