Rulers of Lithuania – 1569 to 1918

Rulers of Lithuania after 1569          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Lithuanian_rulers

This article contains the following 2 divisions:
– Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
– Kingdom of Lithuania (16 February 1918 to 9 July 1918)

 

CHART Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569-1795 226 years

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)

Main article: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Royal Banner & Coat of Arms
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Motto   Si Deus nobiscum quis contra nos (If God is with us, then who is against us)
Pro Fide, Lege et Rege  (For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century)
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was established by Union of Lublin in 1569. The elected King of Poland was to be elected by Lithuanian noble families as a Grand Duke of Lithuania (until then Lithuanian dukedom was hereditary). The first ruler of the common country was Sigismund II Augustus. Following the partitions in 1772, 1793, and 1795, the commonwealth ceased to exist and Lithuania became part of the Russian Empire for 123 years.
There are some gaps in the timeline as it took a while to elect a new king. The first Grand Duke elected after the Gediminyds line went extinct and after the Valois fled back to France was Stephen Báthory, who had made an effort to be recognized as Grand Duke of Lithuania by establishing Vilnius University.
Title: King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lenkijos karalius ir Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis; Belarusian: karol Polščy, vialiki kniaź litoŭski; Polish: Król Polski, wielki książę litewski).

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1618
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
during the reign of Władysław IV (ca. 1635)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23. Incumbent Henry Valois (Henry III of France)

Henry Valois (Henry III of France)

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Reign 16 May 1573 – 12 May 1575 (2 years)
Coronation 22 February 1574 (Wawel)
Predecessor Sigismund II Augustus    Interrex   Successor Anna the Jagiellonian and Stephen Bathory
Regent Jakub Uchański, Interrex
King of France
Reign 30 May 1574 – 2 August 1589
Coronation 13 February 1575 (Reims)
Predecessor Charles IX   Successor Henry IV
Spouse Louise of Lorraine
House House of Valois
Father Henry II of France      Mother Catherine de’ Medici   fourth son
Born 19 September 1551 Château de Fontainebleau, France
Died 2 August 1589 (aged 37) Château de Saint-Cloud, France
Burial Saint Denis Basilica, France
Religion Roman Catholic
Remarks: Henry III (born Alexandre Édouard de France, Polish: Henryk Walezy, Lithuanian: Henrikas Valua) He was a French prince, a Valois monarch, the 1st monarch in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth but abandoned the throne and left Poland to assume his new duties as King of France where he was crowned as Henry III never marrying Anna.
In 1572 Jean Montluc, Bishop of Valence, offered the French prince Henry to the electors of the commonwealth as the next King. Montluc promised the electors that Henry would marry Anna, “to maintain the dynastic tradition”.
Unfortunately, for Anna, after Henry was elected as the first monarch in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, he withdrew his promise and they never wed.
His rule over Poland and Lithuania was brief though important; the Henrician Articles he signed into law accepting the Polish throne established Poland as an elective monarchy subject to free election by the Polish nobility. Of his three older brothers, two would live long enough to become king, but both died young and without a legitimate male heir. He abandoned Poland upon receiving word that he had inherited the throne of France at age 22.

24. Co-incumbents
Anna Jagiellon (#22’s sister)

King Anna in coronation robes on a 1576
Anna Jagiellon

Titles: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth King of Poland & Grand Duke of Lithuania Term 15 December 1575 – 1586 (10 years)
Coronation 1 May 1576 in Krakow
Predecessor Henry  Successor Interrex 1586–1587   Sigismund III Vasa 1587
Spouse Stephen Báthory, Prince of Transylvania (- -1586)
Dynasty Jagiellon House Jagiellon
Father Sigismund I the Old   Mother Bona Sforza
Born 18 October 1523 Kraków, Poland
Died 9 September 1596 (aged 72) Warsaw, Poland
Burial Wawel Cathedral
Remarks: Anna Jagiellon married Stephen Bathory at age 52 and was the last of the Jagiellon dynasty. {See her bio in previous article on the Duchy.}
Stephen Bathory

Stephen Báthory
Stephen Báthory
COA Báthory
COA Báthory

Titles: Prince of Transylvania (1571–1586), Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth King of Poland & Grand Duke of Lithuania   Term 15 December 1575 – 1586 (10 years)
Coronation 1 May 1576 in Krakow
Predecessor Henry   Successor Interrex 1586–1587   Sigismund III Vasa 1587
Spouse  Anna Jagiellon
Dynasty  Hungarian noble family of the Gutkeled clan   House Báthory Somlyó branch
Father Stephen VIII Báthory   Mother Catherine Telegdi
Born 27 September 1533
Died 12 December 1586

signture
signture

Remarks: Stephen Báthory (Hungarian: Báthory István, Polish: Stefan Batory, Lithuanian: Steponas Batoras, Romanian: Ştefan Báthory, Romanian Cyrillic: Штєфан Батори; Belarusian: Стэфан Баторый, Ukrainian: Степан Батори)
Stephen Báthory is considered to be one of the most illustrious elected kings of Poland.

 

25. Incumbent Sigismund III Vasa

Sigismund III Vasa

 

Coat of Arms – Vasa

 

Title: King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth)
Reign 18 September 1587 – 19 April 1632 (44 years)
Coronation 27 December 1587
Predecessor Anna Jagiellon and Stephen Báthory   Successor Władysław IV

King of Sweden
Reign 17 November 1592 – 24 July 1599 (deposed)
Coronation 19 February 1594
Predecessor John III       Successor Charles IX (Sigismund’s uncle)

Spouses Anna of Austria        Constance of Austria  among others…
Children        Władysław IV      John II Casimir   John Albert, Bishop of Warmia and Kraków
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Opole    Alexander Charles   Anna Catherine Constance, Electress Palatine
House   House of Vasa
Father  John III of Sweden   Mother  Catherine Jagellonica (Polish 1st wife)
Born   20 June 1566   Gripsholm Castle, Sweden
Died   30 April 1632 (aged 65)   Warsaw, Poland
Burial  4 February 1633   Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland
Signature
Religion   Roman Catholicism
Remarks: Anna’s (#24) nephew-  Sigismund III Vasa (Polish: Zygmunt III Waza, Lithuanian: Zigmantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania – Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund).
Sigismund sought to create a personal union between the Commonwealth and Sweden (Polish–Swedish union), and succeeded for a time in 1592. He was deposed in 1599 from the Swedish throne by his uncle, Charles IX of Sweden.
Sigismund remains a highly controversial figure in Poland. His long reign coincided with the apex of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth’s prestige, power and economic influence. On the other hand, it was during his reign that the symptoms of decline leading to the Commonwealth’s eventual demise surfaced. Popular histories, such as the books of Paweł Jasienica, tend to present Sigismund as the principal source of these destructive processes; whereas academic histories are usually not damning of him. However, the question of whether the Commonwealth’s decline was caused by Sigismund’s decisions or had its roots in historical processes beyond his personal control, remains a highly debated topic.

26. Incumbent Ladislaus IV Vasaor Władysław IV

Władysław IV Vasa

Royal titles: Władysław IV, by grace of God the King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Livonia, and hereditary King of the Swedes, Goths and Vandals, elected Grand Duke of Muscovy.”
King of Poland
Grand Duke of  Lithuania
Reign 8 November 1632 – 20 May 1648 (16 years)
Coronation 6 February 1633
Predecessor   Sigismund III Vasa    Successor  John II Casimir Vasa (22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672)

Spouses     Cecilia Renata of Austria       Marie Louise Gonzaga
Children Sigismund Casimir  Maria Anna Isabella    Władysław Konstanty (Illegitimate)
House   House of Vasa
Father  Sigismund III Vasa     Mother   Anne of Austria (Anna of Habsburg)
Born 9 June 1595   Łobzów, near Kraków, Poland
Died    20 May 1648 (aged 52)    Merkinė, Lithuania
Burial  Wawel Cathedral, Kraków,Poland
Signature
Remarks: Władysław IV Vasa (Polish: Władysław IV Waza; Latin: Vladislaus IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV Vasa; Lithuanian: Vladislovas IV Vaza) was a Polish and Swedish prince from the House of Vasa.
In 1610 the teen-aged Władysław was elected tsar of Russia by the Seven Boyars, but did not assume the Russian throne due to his father’s opposition and a popular uprising in Russia. Nevertheless, until 1634 he used the title of Grand Duke of Muscovy.
Władysław was fairly successful in defending the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against invasion, most notably in the Smolensk War of 1632–34, in which he participated personally. He supported religious tolerance and carried out military reforms, such as the founding of the Commonwealth Navy. He was also a renowned patron of the arts. He failed, however, to realize his dreams of regaining the Swedish crown, gaining fame by conquering the Ottoman Empire, strengthening royal power, and reforming the Commonwealth.
He died without a legitimate male heir and was succeeded to the Polish throne by his brother, John II Casimir Vasa (Jan Kazimierz Waza). Władysław’s death marked the end of relative stability in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as conflicts and tensions that had been growing over several decades came to a head with devastating events, notably the greatest of the Cossack uprisings — the Khmelnytsky Uprising (1648) — and the Swedish invasion (“the Deluge”, 1655–60).

27. Incumbent John II Casimir Vasa

John II Casimir Vasa

 

King of Poland
Royal titles: John Casimir, by God’s grace King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia and, Chernihiv; and also hereditary King of the Swedes, Goths and Vandals.
Reign   November 1648 – 16 September 1668 (20 years)
Coronation   19 January 1649
Predecessor   Władysław IV Vasa  His older brother Successor   Michael Korybut
Spouses  Ludwika Maria Gonzaga (his brother’s widow) ( -1667) & Claudine Françoise Mignot
Children  John Sigismund, Crown Prince of Poland   Maria Anna Vasa
House   House of Vasa
Father  Sigismund III Vasa   (1566–1632) Mother  Constance of Austria (1588–1631)
Born  22 March 1609  Kraków, Poland
Died   16 December 1672 (aged 63)   Nevers, France
Burial 31 January 1676   Wawel Cathedral
Remarks: Abdicated and became a monk, last of the Vasa dynasty in Poland-Lithuania.
John II Casimir (Polish: Jan II Kazimierz Waza; German: Johann II. Kasimir Wasa; Lithuanian: Jonas Kazimieras Vaza ) Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660. In Poland, he was referred to as Jan Kazimierz.
He was the third and last monarch on the Polish throne from the House of Vasa. He was the last ruler of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth bearing a blood connection to the Jagiellon dynasty, through the female line.
Biography
His father Sigismund, grandson of Gustav I of Sweden, had in 1592 succeeded his own father to the Swedish throne, only to be deposed in 1599 by his uncle, Charles IX of Sweden. This led to a long-standing feud wherein the Polish kings of the House of Vasa claimed the Swedish throne, resulting in the Polish–Swedish War of 1600–1629. Poland and Sweden were also on opposite sides in the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648), although in that war Poland for the most part avoided taking part in any major military actions.
He did display talent as a military commander, showing his abilities in the Smolensk War against Muscovy (1633). In 1637
In 1641 John Casimir decided to become a Jesuit. In 1642 he again left the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, accompanying his sister to Germany. In 1643 he joined the Jesuits, against vocal opposition from King Władysław, causing a diplomatic rift between the Commonwealth and the Pope. John Casimir was made a cardinal, but in December 1646, finding himself unsuited to ecclesiastical life, he returned to Poland.
In 1648 John Casimir was elected to succeed his half-brother on the Polish throne. The reign of the last of the Vasas in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth would be dominated by the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667), followed by the war with Sweden (“The Deluge”), the scene for which had been set by the Commonwealth’s two previous Vasa kings.
In 1660 John II Casimir was forced to renounce his claim to the Swedish throne and acknowledge Swedish sovereignty over Livonia and the city of Riga.
John Casimir had married his brother’s widow, Marie Louise Gonzaga (Polish: Maria Ludwika), who was a major support to the King. Marie Louise died in.
On 16 September 1668, John II Casimir abdicated the Polish–Lithuanian throne, and returned to France, where he joined the Jesuits and became abbot of Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris.

28. Incumbent Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki

Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki

Royal titles: Michael I, by the Grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Livonia, Smolensk, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlaskie,Severia and Chernihiv, etc.

King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania
Reign   June 19, 1669 – November 10, 1673 (4 years)
Coronation   September 29, 1669
Predecessor   John II Casimir Vasa   Successor   John III Sobieski
Spouse  Eleonora Maria of Austria
House   Wiśniowiecki  House Lithuanian nobility
Father   Jeremi Wiśniowiecki   Mother   Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
Born  May 31, 1640  Biały Kamień, Poland (now Ukraine)
Died  10 Nov 1673 (aged 33)  Lwów, Poland (now Ukraine)
Burial 31 Jan 1676    Wawel Cathedral, Świętokrzyska Chapel

Remarks:  Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (Polish: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, Lithuanian: Mykolas I Kaributas Višnioveckis; May 31,[1] 1640 – November 10, 1673), son of Jeremi Wiśniowiecki and his wife Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska, was ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from September 29, 1669, to his death in 1673.
In 1670 he was married to Eleonora Maria of Austria (1653-1697), daughter of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his third wife Eleonora Gonzaga.
Biography
Following the abdication of King John II Casimir Vasa and the end of The Deluge, the Polish nobilityelected Michał to the Polish throne. Michał was the son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Michał Wiśniowiecki, known for his ruthless actions against Bohdan Chmielnicki’sUprising.
Michał Wiśniowiecki’s reign was less than successful. His father’s military fame notwithstanding, Michał lost a war against the Turks, who occupied Podole (see Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676))[2] He was unable to cope with his responsibilities and with Poland’s quarreling factions. After his death, John Sobieski was elected King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and crowned as John III.

28. Incumbent Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki

Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki

Royal titles: Michael I, by the Grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Livonia, Smolensk, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlaskie,Severia and Chernihiv, etc.

King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania
Reign   June 19, 1669 – November 10, 1673 (4 years)
Coronation   September 29, 1669
Predecessor   John II Casimir Vasa   Successor   John III Sobieski
Spouse  Eleonora Maria of Austria
House   Wiśniowiecki  House Lithuanian nobility
Father   Jeremi Wiśniowiecki   Mother   Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
Born  May 31, 1640  Biały Kamień, Poland (now Ukraine)
Died  10 Nov 1673 (aged 33)  Lwów, Poland (now Ukraine)
Burial 31 Jan 1676    Wawel Cathedral, Świętokrzyska Chapel
Remarks:  Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (Polish: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, Lithuanian: Mykolas I Kaributas Višnioveckis; May 31,[1] 1640 – November 10, 1673), son of Jeremi Wiśniowiecki and his wife Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska, was ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from September 29, 1669, to his death in 1673.
In 1670 he was married to Eleonora Maria of Austria (1653-1697), daughter of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his third wife Eleonora Gonzaga.
Biography
Following the abdication of King John II Casimir Vasa and the end of The Deluge, the Polish nobilityelected Michał to the Polish throne. Michał was the son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Michał Wiśniowiecki, known for his ruthless actions against Bohdan Chmielnicki’sUprising.
Michał Wiśniowiecki’s reign was less than successful. His father’s military fame notwithstanding, Michał lost a war against the Turks, who occupied Podole (see Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676))[2] He was unable to cope with his responsibilities and with Poland’s quarreling factions. After his death, John Sobieski was elected King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and crowned as John III.

29. Incumbent John III Sobieski

John III Sobieski

Royal titles:  John III, by the grace of God King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia,Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Livonia, Smolensk, Kiev, Volhynia, Podlasie, Severia and Chernihiv, etc.
King of Poland                Reign 1674–1696  (22 years)
Coronation   2 February 1676
Predecessor   Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki   Successor   Augustus II the Strong

Spouse   Marie Casimire Louise
Children   Jakub Ludwik Sobieski   Teresa Teofila Sobieska             Adelaide Luise Sobieska
La Mannone Sobieska                      Teresa Kunegunda Sobieska     Aleksander Benedykt Sobieski
Konstanty Władysław Sobieski        Jan Sobieski                              Brisacier
House   House of Sobieski – Polish szlachta
Father   Jakub Sobieski   Mother   Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz

Augustus II the Strong’s children

Born 17 August 1629   Olesko, Poland (now Ukraine)
Died   17 June 1696 (aged 66)   Wilanów, near Warsaw
Burial   Wawel, Kraków, Poland

Sobieski’s battles
Battle of Podhajce (1667)      Battle of Bracław (1671)     Battle of Mohylów (1671)  Battle of Kalnik (1671)
Battle of Krasnobród (1672)  Battle of Niemirów (1672)  Battle of Komarno (1672)  Battle of Kałusz (1672)
Battle of Chocim (1673)        Battle of Bar (1674)             Battle of Lwów (1675)      Battle of Trembowla (1675)
Battle of Wojniłów (1675)     Battle of Żurawno (1676)    Battle of Vienna (1683)     Battle of Parkany (1683)
Battle of Jazłowiec (1684)     Battle of Żwaniec (1684)     Battle of Iaşi (1686)          Battle of Suceava (1691)
Remarks:  John III Sobieski (Polish: Jan III Sobieski, Lithuanian: Jonas Sobieskis)  was one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sobieski’s 22-year-reign was marked by a period of the Commonwealth’s stabilization, much needed after the turmoil of the Deluge and Khmelnytsky Uprising. Popular among his subjects, he was an able military commander, most famous for the victory over the Turks in the 1683 Battle of Vienna. Following his victories over the Ottoman Empire, he was called by the Turks the “Lion of Lechistan” and held as the savior of European Christendom by the Pope.

30. Incumbent Augustus II the Strong

Augustus II the Strong
or Frederick Augustus I

Augustus II the Strong  or Frederick Augustus I
Titles: Elector of Saxony  as Frederick Augustus I
Reign   27 April 1694 – 1 February 1733
Predecessor   John George IV   Successor   Frederick Augustus II

King of Poland (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth)
Reign   15 Sep 1697–1706 (9 years)
Coronation   15 Sep 1697   Wawel Cathedral, Kraków,Poland
Predecessor   John III   Successor    Stanisław I

King of Poland (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth)
Reign   1709 – 1 February 1733
Predecessor    Stanisław I   Successor   Stanisław I

Spouse   Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Children   Augustus III of Poland   Maurice de Saxe                             Johann Georg, Chevalier de Saxe
Frederick Augustus Rutowsky         Maria Anna Katharina Rutowska   Anna Karolina, Countess Orzelska

Augustus II the Strong’s children

August, a voracious womanizer, never missed his wife, spending his time with a series of mistresses:
√1694–1696 with Countess Maria Aurora of Königsmarck.
√1696–1699 with Countess Anna Aloysia Maximiliane von Lamberg.
√1698–1704 with Ursula Katharina of Altenbockum, later Princess of Teschen.
√1701–1706 with Fatima, Turkish woman, renamed later as Maria Aurora of Spiegel.
√1704–1713 with Anna Constantia of Brockdorff, later Countess of Cosel.
√1706–1707 with Henriette Rénard.
√1708 with Angélique Duparc, French dancer and actress.
√1713–1719 with Maria Magdalena of Bielinski, by her first marriage Countess of Dönhoff and by the second Princess Lubomirska.
√1720–1721 with Erdmuthe Sophie of Dieskau, by marriage of Loß.
√1721–1722 with Baroness Christine of Osterhausen, by marriage of Stanislawski.
√?–? with Friederike, a black woman.
House   House of Wettin
Father   John George III, Elector of Saxony   Mother   Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark
Born   12 May 1670   Dresden, Electorate of Saxony
Died   1 February 1733 (aged 62)   Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland
Burial   Katholische Hofkirche, Dresden(heart)   Wawel Cathedral, Kraków(body)
Religion   Lutheranism (by birth)   Roman Catholicism (by conversion)
Remarks:   Frederick Augustus I or Augustus II the Strong (German: August II der Starke; Polish: August II Mocny; Lithuanian: Augustas II) was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and became King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (as Augustus II).
Augustus’s great physical strength earned him the nicknames “the Strong,” “the Saxon Hercules” and “Iron-Hand.” He liked to show that he lived up to his name by breaking horse shoes with his bare hands and engaging in fox tossing with a single finger.
In order to be elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Augustus converted to Roman Catholicism. He owed allegiance to the Imperial Habsburgs as a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
As Elector of Saxony, he is perhaps best remembered as a patron of the arts and architecture. He established the Saxon capital of Dresden as a major cultural centre, attracting artists from across Europe to his court. Augustus also amassed an impressive art collection and built lavish baroque palaces at Dresden and Warsaw.
As King of Poland, his reign was not successful. He embroiled the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Great Northern War, which led to the Russian Empire strengthening its influence over the Commonwealth, and he failed to achieve internal reforms and to bolster royal power in the Commonwealth.

31. Incumbent Stanislaus Leszczyński

Stanislaus Leszczyński 1706–1709
Stanislaus Leszczyński 1706–1709

Titles: King of Poland   Duke of Lorraine  (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth)
Reign   1704–1709 (3 years)
Coronation   October 4, 1705
Predecessor   August II the Strong   Successor   August II the Strong

King of Poland
Reign   1733–1736
Predecessor   August II the Strong   Successor   August III the Saxon

Spouse   Catherine Opalińska
Children   Anna Leszczyńska   Maria, Queen of France wife of Louis XV
House    House of Leszczyński  – Polish szlachta
Father   Rafał Leszczyński   Mother   Anna Jabłonowska
Born   20 October 1677   Lwów, Poland
Died   February 23, 1766 (aged 88)   Lunéville, France
Burial   Notre-Dame de Bon-Secours, Nancy, France;   Wawel, Kraków, Poland
Remarks: War of Polish Succession
Stanisław I Leszczyński (Lithuanian: Stanislovas Leščinskis; Belarusian: Станіслаў Ляшчынскі; French: Stanislas Leszczynski) was King of Poland, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire (a rank bestowed by Emperor Frederick III on the Leszczyński family).
In 1697, as Cupbearer of Poland, he signed the confirmation of the articles of election of August II the Strong. In 1703 he joined the Lithuanian Confederation, which the Sapiehas with the aid of Sweden had formed against August.

32. Incumbent Augustus II the Strong Term 1709–1733 (24 years) House Wettin
Remarks: also Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I.  Regained office from Augustus II the Strong #30 as King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania /  (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth)

33. Incumbent Stanislaus Leszczyński Term 1733–1736 (3 years) House Polish szlachta
Remarks: War of Polish Succession.  Regained office from Stanislaus Leszczyński #31 as King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania /  (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth)

34. Incumbent August III Wettin

August III Wettin 1733–1763

Royal titles:   August III, by the grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia (i.e. Galicia), Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia,Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlaskie, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia, Chernihiv, and also hereditary Duke of Saxony and Prince-elector.
Augustus III          (Frederick Augustus II)
King of Poland
Reign   1734 – 5 October 1763 (30 years)
Predecessor   Stanisław Leszczyński   Successor   Stanisław August Poniatowski
Elector of Saxony
Predecessor   Frederick Augustus I   Successor   Frederick Christian
Spouse   Maria Josepha of Austria (Archduchess) the eldest child of Joseph I, the Holy Roman Emperor. Marriage: 20 August 1719 In Dresden
Children
Frederick Augustus Franz Xavier (b. Dresden, 18 Nov 1720 – d. Dresden, 22 Jan 1721).
Joseph Augustus Wilhelm Frederick Franz Xavier Johann Nepomuk (b. Pillnitz, 24 Oct 1721 – d. Dresden, 14 Mar 1728).
Frederick Christian Leopold Johann Georg Franz Xavier (b. Dresden, 5 Sep 1722 – d. Dresden, 17 Dec 1763), successor to his father as Elector of Saxony.
Stillborn daughter (Dresden, 23 Jun 1723).
Maria Amalia Christina Franziska Xaveria Flora Walburga (b. Dresden, 24 Nov 1724 – d. Buen Retiro, 27 Sep 1760); married on 19 June 1738 to Charles VII, King of Naples, later King Charles III of Spain.
Maria Margaretha Franziska Xaveria (b. Dresden, 13 Sep 1727 – d. Dresden, 1 Feb 1734).
Maria Anna Sophie Sabina Angela Franziska Xaveria (b. Dresden, 29 Aug 1728 – d. Munich, 17 Feb 1797); married on 9 Aug 1747 to Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria.
Franz Xavier Albert August Ludwig Benno (b. Dresden, 25 Aug 1730 – d. Dresden, 21 Jun 1806), Regent of Saxony (1763–68).
Maria Josepha Karolina Eleonore Franziska Xaveria (b. Dresden, 4 Nov 1731 – d. Versailles, 13 Mar 1767); married on 9 Feb 1747 to Louis, Dauphin of France (1729–1765), son of Louis XV of France (she was the mother of Kings Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X) of France.
Karl Christian Joseph Ignaz Eugen Franz Xavier (b. Dresden, 13 Jul 1733 – d. Dresden, 16 Jun 1796), Duke of Courland and Zemgale (1758–63).
Maria Christina Anna Teresia Salomea Eulalia Franziska Xaveria (b. Warsaw, 12 Feb 1735 – d. Brumath, 19 Nov 1782), Princess-Abbess of Remiremont.
Maria Elisabeth Apollonia Casimira Francisca Xaveria (b. Warsaw, 9 February 1736 – d. Dresden, 24 Dec 1818).
Albert Kasimir August Ignaz Pius Franz Xavier (b. Moritzburg, near Dresden, 11 Jul 1738 – d. Vienna, 10 Feb 1822), Duke of Teschen and Governor of the Austrian Netherlands (1781–93).
Clemens Wenceslaus August Hubertus Franz Xavier (b. Schloss Hubertusburg, Wermsdorf, 28 Sep 1739 – d. Marktoberdorf, Allgäu, 27 Jul 1812), Archbishop of Trier.
Maria Kunigunde Dorothea Hedwig Franziska Xaveria Florentina (b. Warsaw, 10 Nov 1740 – d. Dresden, 8 Apr 1826), Princess-Abbessof Thorn and Essen; nearly married Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans; Philippe Égalité.
House  House of Wettin
Father   Augustus II the Strong   Mother   Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Born   17 October 1696   Dresden, Saxony, Germany
Died   5 October 1763 (aged 66)   Dresden, Saxony, Germany
Burial   Dresden, family vault atKatholische Hofkirche
Religion   Lutheranism (by birth)   Roman Catholicism (by conversion)
Remarks:   Augustus III (Polish: August III; 17 October 1696 – 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 as Frederick Augustus II (German: Friedrich August II). Augustus, the heir to Augustus II the Strong, had secured the Polish throne following a war of succession against partisans of Stanisław I Leszczyński. The Russian Empire, which had assisted him in his bid to succeed his father, prevented him from installing his family on the Polish throne, supporting instead the aristocrat Stanisław August Poniatowski. During his reign, Augustus spent little time in Poland and was known to prefer recreation to ruling.

35. Incumbent Stanislaus August IIor Stanisław August Poniatowski

Stanislaus August II

King of Poland
Reign   1764 – 7 January 1795 (31 years)
Coronation   25 November 1764   St. John’s Cathedral, Warsaw
Predecessor   Augustus III
Spouse and child(ren): Spouse 1: Grand Duchess Catherine Alekseyevna, Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp. The Future Catherine II of Russia  –>  Anna Petrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia (9 December 1757-8 March 1758)
Spouse 2: Magdalena Agnieszka Sapieżyna (Lubomirska) –> Constance Żwanowa (1768-1810) married to Karol Żwan; no issue (divorced)
–>  Michał Cichocki (Sep 1770-5 May 1828)
Spouse 3: Elżbieta Szydłowska –>
-Konstancja Grabowska  married to Wincenty Dernałowicz. Not all sources agree she was Poniatowski’s child
-Michal Grabowski (1773- 17 Aug 1812) Brigadier general of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw, died during the Battle of Smolensk (1812); no issue
-Isabella Grabowska
-Alexandra Grabowska (26 Mar 1776-21 May 1858) married to Walenty Sobolewski, three daughters
-Stanisław Grabowski  (29Oct 1780-3Oct 1845) married twice
-Count Stanisław Poniatowski, and Konstancja Czartoryska
House   Poniatowski  – Polish szlachta
Father   Stanisław Poniatowski, Castellan of Kraków   Mother Princess  Konstancja née Czartoryska
Born   17 January 1732   Wołczyn, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Died   12 February 1798 (aged 66)   Saint Petersburg, Russia
Burial   St. John’s Cathedral, Warsaw
Remarks During his reign the merger of the Grand Duchy with the Kingdom of Poland was passed in 1791; abdicated following the Partitions of Poland.
Stanisław August Poniatowski (also Stanisław II August; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski) was the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–95). He remains a controversial figure in Polish history. Recognized as a great patron of the arts and sciences and a supporter of progressive reforms, he is also remembered as the last king of the Commonwealth, the one who failed to prevent its destruction.
While at the royal court in Saint Petersburg, Russia, he became romantically involved with the twenty-six-year-old future Empress Catherine Alexeievna (Catherine the Great), three years his senior. With her support, in 1764 he was elected king of Poland. Against expectations, he attempted to reform and strengthen the ailing Commonwealth. His efforts met with external opposition from Russia and Austria, both interested in keeping the Commonwealth weak; and from internal conservative interests, which saw reforms as threatening their traditional liberties and prerogatives.
The defining crisis of his early reign was the War of the Bar Confederation (1768–72), which led to the First Partition of Poland (1772). The latter part of his reign saw reforms wrought by the Great Sejm (1788–1792) and the Constitution of May 3, 1791. These reforms were overthrown by the 1792 Targowica Confederation and War in Defense of the Constitution, leading directly to the Second Partition of Poland (1793), the Kościuszko Uprising (1794) and the final Third Partition of Poland (1795), marking the end of the Commonwealth. Poniatowski abdicated soon afterward and spent the last years of his life in semi-captivity in Saint Petersburg.
A Polish noble of the Ciołek coat of arms and a member of the Poniatowski family, he was the brother of Michał Jerzy Poniatowski (1736–94), Primate of Poland; and uncle to Prince Józef Poniatowski, (1763–1813).

Kingdom of Lithuania (16 February 1918 to 9 July 1918)

Main article: Kingdom of Lithuania (1918)

The Council of Lithuania (Lietuvos Taryba) declared independence on 16 February 1918 when Lithuania was occupied by the Reichswehr. The name of the state was the Kingdom of Lithuania. On 9 July 1918, the council declared that the Duke of Urach is to become King Mindaugas II of Lithuania. However, on 2 November, the council revoked this decision and declared that Lithuania is to be a democratic republic.

36.  King-elect Mindaugas II of Lithuania, Wilhelm Karl Duke of Urach

King-elect Mindaugas II of LT,
Wilhelm Karl Duke of Urach

Duke of Urach
Reign   17 July 1869 – 24 March 1928
Predecessor   Prince Wilhelm   Successor   Prince Karl Gero

King-elect of Lithuania
Reign  11 July – 2 November 1918

Spouses   Duchess Amalie in Bavaria   Princess Wiltrud of Bavaria
Children   Princess Marie-Gabriele    Princess Elisabeth     Princess Karola    Prince Wilhelm
Karl Gero, Duke of Urach                        Princess Margarete   Prince Albrecht    Prince Eberhard
Princess Mechtilde
House   House of Württemberg
Father   Wilhelm, 1st Duke of Urach   Mother   Princess Florestine of Monaco
Born   30 May 1864   Monaco
Died   24 March 1928 (aged 63)   Rapallo, Kingdom of Italy
Burial   Ludwigsburg Palace Church
Remarks: Prince Wilhelm of Urach, Count of Württemberg, 2nd Duke of Urach (Wilhelm Karl Florestan Gero Crescentius; German Fürst Wilhelm von Urach, Graf von Württemberg, 2. Herzog von Urach) was a German prince who was elected King of Lithuania with the regnal name Mindaugas II on 11 July 1918. He never assumed the crown however, as German authorities declared the election invalid and the invitation was withdrawn in November 1918. From 17 July 1869 until his death he was head of the morganatic Urach branch of the House of Württemberg.